Pumped Storage

Pumped Storage Hydropower is America’s Energy Storage

Everything old is new again. 水电正在卷土重来,而且不仅仅是作为一种发电来源. Water can act as a battery, too. 它被称为抽水蓄能,是美国最大、最古老的能源储存方式, and it’s the most efficient form of large-scale energy storage.

Hydropower was America’s first renewable power source. 它经常被错误地认为是一种被利用的资源.S. Department of Energy’s 2016 Hydropower Vision report, 到2050年,水力发电的发电量可以持续增加50千兆瓦,其中36千兆瓦是抽水蓄能.

betway必威平台新报告指出市场和监管挑战对抽水蓄能水电的增长

betway必威平台 Unveils 2018 Pumped Storage Report

美国国家水电协会(betway必威平台)今天发布了2018年抽水蓄能报告, which details both the promise and the challenges facing the U.S. pumped storage hydropower industry. Pumped storage hydropower (PSH), the nation’s largest source of grid-scale energy storage, 能帮助解决电力部门目前面临的一些最紧迫的问题吗. 尽管确保电力供应安全匹配电力需求和实时, market, policy and regulatory burdens continue to hinder its growth.

The Report finds that some of PSH’s key attributes, 比如电网的可靠性和额外再生资源的整合, 在当前的环境和电力市场以及监管结构中没有得到充分的补偿. For example, wholesale power market services such as frequency regulation, ramping and spinning reserves are not valued in many of markets today, 或在一个独立的系统运营商的市场规则和产品定义的价值, but not in another. In many cases, 这些通常是实时或最近的市场,没有长期市场产品可以让批量存储项目通过长期电力购买协议或定义的价值流来吸引寻求收入确定性的投资者.

PSH project developers also face is a lengthy licensing process. 目前,一个项目获得许可、建造并投入运营可能需要长达10年的时间. In today’s fast-moving energy sector, 这么长的准备时间可能会让一个项目在被允许之前就被淘汰.

In addition to outlining the challenges facing the PSH industry, 该报告提供了一系列指导能源行业的建议, regulators, and policy makers.

Market and Policy Improvements

  • 开发市场产品,使灵活的资源能够因提供帮助满足电网需求的服务而得到补偿, 包括在关键能源需求期间提供关键能力的快速响应系统.
  • 建立市场机制,评估储能技术为整个电网提供关键支持服务的能力, taking into consideration project lifecycle costs, performance and energy storage system degradation.
  • 开发认识到PSH在国内电网中潜在的能源可靠性和安全作用的市场机制和产品.

Regulatory Improvements

  • Establish an alternative, 简化低冲击抽水蓄能水电的许可程序, such as off-channel, modular, or closed-loop projects.
  • In regions without competitive wholesale (energy or capacity) markets, require consideration of energy storage resources in state integrated long-term planning processes; including requiring equal consideration with traditional resources.
  • 制定各种形式储能的标准评价标准,便于对不同类型的储能进行比较和评价.

如今,抽水蓄能占美国公用事业规模能源蓄能的97%,共有42个站点,总容量为23gw.

Pumped Storage Explained

抽水蓄能设施是在电力过剩时,将较低的水库的水向上推到较高的水库. In pumping mode, 电能转化为势能,并以水的形式储存在高处, which is why it is sometimes called a “water battery”. 将水泵上山临时储存“给电池充电”.

From there, gravity takes care of the rest .During periods of high electricity demand, 储存的水通过涡轮机释放,并在发电模式下转换成电能,就像传统的水电设施一样.

Illustration source: U.S. Department of Energy Hydropower Vision Report

Pumped Storage Enables More Wind and Solar

抽水蓄能水电通过利用过剩的发电量,使其他可再生能源(风能/太阳能)更大程度地整合到电网中, 并准备好在风力和太阳能发电较少的时期发电. 它还具有快速提高发电量以应对需求高峰时期的能力.

由于现有固定资源的能力继续被扩大到其极限,以支持增长
variable renewable energy resources, the U.S. 电力行业正朝着无排放储能资源的部署方向发展. Pumped storage provides predictable, consistent generation.

Pumped storage facilities are like sponges; they can suck up this excess energy from the grid and store it for later.

Pumped Storage and the Grid

Other renewables, like wind and solar generation, while less variable with adequate geographic diversity, can present new
challenges for the U.S. grid. 可变发电资源的电力输出可以随着天气模式的变化和, while the changing weather patterns may be well understood, the magnitude of renewable energy generation ramps (in particular, 当可再生能源在其发电组合中占很大比重时,与负荷变化无关的情况下)可能对电网运营商构成挑战. This variable output can lead to frequency and voltage fluctuations, which adversely affect grid stability.

Pumped storage, however, 满足不断增加的传动系统可靠性和系统储备要求. It shifts, stores, 并对产生的能量进行再利用,直到有相应的系统储备需求和可变能量集成.

当在电网规模上执行这种转换时,还可以避免传输拥塞时期(i.e., 吸收或消耗剩余发电到与传输能力一致的水平), to help more efficiently manage the electric grid (e.g., quick access to significant and sustained energy ramping), and to avoid potential interruptions to energy supply (e.g., supply operating reserves, spinning inertia, etc.). 先进的可调速度技术也允许抽水蓄能提供更大范围的快速斜坡, both up and down, 频率调节服务在产生和泵送模式.